According to the American College of Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver.


Gastroenterology is an area of medicine that focuses on the health of the digestive system, or the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gastroenterologists can treat everything from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to hepatitis C. Here’s a look at what these specialists do and when you should consider seeing one.

What is gastroenterology?

Gastroenterology is a specialized area of medicine that focuses on the GI tract. Some gastroenterologists treat general diseases of the GI. Others focus on a particular type of gastroenterology.

Some possible areas of emphasis are:

  • hepatology, which focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas
  • pancreatic disease
  • transplantation
  • inflammatory bowel disease, or chronic inflammation of your digestive tract
  • gastrointestinal cancer
  • endoscopic surveillance
  • reflux esophagitis, which is commonly due to gastroesophageal reflux disease

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

An intestinal disorder causing pain in the stomach, wind, diarrhoea and constipation.
The cause of irritable bowel syndrome isn’t well understood. A diagnosis is often made based on symptoms.
Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation.
Some people can control their symptoms by managing diet, lifestyle and stress. Others will need medication and counselling.


Requires a medical diagnosis
Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation.

People may experience following:
Pain areas: in the abdomen
Pain types: can be recurrent in the abdomen
Gastrointestinal: change in bowel habits, constipation, diarrhoea, inability to empty bowels, indigestion, nausea, passing excessive amounts of gas, or urgent need to defecate
Abdominal: cramping or discomfort
Also common: anxiety, depression, discomfort, loss of appetite, or symptoms alleviated by defecation

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Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile that’s released into your small intestine.

Gallstones range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Some people develop just one gallstone, while others develop many gallstones at the same time.

People who experience symptoms from their gallstones usually require gallbladder removal surgery. Gallstones that don’t cause any signs and symptoms typically don’t need treatment.


Gallstones may cause no signs or symptoms. If a gallstone lodges in a duct and causes a blockage, the resulting signs and symptoms may include:

  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the upper right portion of your abdomen
  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the center of your abdomen, just below your breastbone
  • Back pain between your shoulder blades
  • Pain in your right shoulder
  • Nausea or vomiting

Gallstone pain may last several minutes to a few hours.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

Seek immediate care if you develop signs and symptoms of a serious gallstone complication, such as:

  • Abdominal pain so intense that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position
  • Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
  • High fever with chills


Affecting over 20% of the population, Tinnitus or ringing in the ear which is an age-related problem can signify an underlying risk of hearing loss or ear injury. This condition can be improved with treatment of the underlying cause or with other treatment which reduces the noise, making it less noticeable.

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A sensation of spinning either you or the things around you is known as vertigo. It is a symptom, rather than a condition that can be the result of some problems with certain parts of the brain. There are certain types of treating methods for it along with medications along with a series of exercises and other things.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is associated with a group of symptoms affecting the nose mostly occur when you are allergic to something. When a person is allergic to something and they comes in contact with the thing, the body releases the chemicals causing the symptoms.

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